4.1. Working with Git as a user

The ns-3 project used Mercurial in the past as its source code control system, but it has moved to Git in December 2018. Git is a VCS like Mercurial, Subversion or CVS, and it is used to maintain many open-source (and closed-source) projects. While Git and mercurial have a lot of common properties, if you are new to Git you should read first an introduction to it. The most up-to-date guide is the Git Book, at https://git-scm.com/book/en/v2/Getting-Started-Git-Basics.

The ns-3 project is officially hosted on GitLab.com at https://gitlab.com/nsnam/. For convenience and historical reasons, ns-3-dev mirrors are currently posted on Bitbucket.com and GitHub.com, and kept in sync with the official repository periodically via cron jobs. We recommend that users who have been working from one of these mirrors repoint their remotes so that they pull origin or upstream from GitLab.com (see below explanation about how to configure remotes).

This section of the manual provides common tips for both users and maintainers. Since the first part is shared, in this manual section we will start with a personal repository and then explain what to do in some typical cases. ns-3 users often combine ns-3-dev with other repositories (netanim, apps from the app store). This manual chapter does not cover this use case; it only focuses on the single ns-3-dev repository. See other project documentation such as the ns-3 tutorial for descriptions on bundled releases distributed as source archives, or on the bake build tool for managing multiple repositories. The guidelines listed below also largely pertain to the user who is using (and cloning) bake from the GitLab.com repository.

4.1.1. ns-3’s Git workflow in a nutshell

Experienced Git users will not necessarily need instruction on how to set up personal repositories (below). However, they should be aware of the project’s workflow:

  • The main repository’s master branch is the main development branch. The project maintains only this one branch and strives to maintain a mostly linear history on it.

  • Releases are made by creating a branch from the master branch and tagging the branch with the release number when ready, and then merging the release branch back to the master branch. Releases can be identified by a Git tag, and a modified VERSION file in the branch. However, the modified VERSION file is not merged back to master.

    • If a hotfix release must be made to update a past release, a new hotfix support branch will be created by branching from the tip of the last relevant release. Changesets from master branch (such as bug fixes) may be cherry-picked to the hotfix branch. The hotfix release is tagged with the hotfix version number, and merged back to the master branch.

  • Merges to the ns-3 master branch are fast forwarded when possible, and commits can be squashed as appropriate, to maintain a clean linear history. Merge commits can be avoided in simple cases.

    • More complicated merges might not be able to be fast forwarded, with the result that there will be a merge commit upon the merge.

  • Maintainers can commit obvious non-critical fixes (documentation improvements, typos etc.) directly into the master branch. Users who are not maintainers can create GitLab.com Merge Requests for small items such as these, for maintainers to review.

  • Maintainers can directly commit bug fixes to their maintained modules without review/approval by other maintainers, although a review phase is recommended for non-trivial fixes. Larger commits that touch multiple modules should be reviewed and approved by the set of affected maintainers.

  • When proposing code (new features, bug fixes, etc.) for a module maintained by someone else, the typical workflow will be to fork the nsnam/ns-3-dev.git repository, create a local feature branch on your fork, and use GitLab.com to generate a Merge Request towards nsnam/ns-3-dev.git when ready. The Merge Request will then be reviewed, and in response to changes requested or comments from maintainers, authors are are asked to modify their feature branch and rebase to the tip of ns-3-dev.git as needed.

4.1.2. Setup of a personal repository

We will provide two ways, one anonymous (but will impede the creation of merge requests) and the other, preferred, that include forking the repository through the GitLab.com web interface. Directly cloning ns-3-dev

If you go to the official ns-3-dev page, hosted at https://gitlab.com/nsnam/ns-3-dev, you can find a button that says Clone. If you are not logged in, then you will see only the option of cloning the repository through HTTPS, with this command:

$ git clone https://gitlab.com/nsnam/ns-3-dev.git

If this command exits successfully, you will have a newly created ns-3-dev directory with all the source code. Forking ns-3-dev on GitLab.com

Assume that you are the user john on GitLab.com and that you want to create a new repository that is synced with nsnam/ns-3-dev.

  1. Log into GitLab.com

  2. Navigate to https://gitlab.com/nsnam/ns-3-dev

  3. In the top-right corner of the page, click Fork.

Note that you may only do this once; if you try to fork again, Gitlab will take you to the page of the original fork. So, if you are planning to maintain two or more separate forks (for example, one for your private work, another for maintenance, etc.), you are doing a mistake. Instead, you should add these forks as a remote of your existing directory (see below for adding remotes). Usually, it is a good thing to add the maintainer’s repository as remotes, because it can happen that “bleeding edge” features will appear there before landing in ns-3-dev.

For more information on forking with Gilab, there is plenty of visual documentation (https://docs.gitlab.com/ee/user/project/repository/forking_workflow.html). To work with your forked repository, you have two ways: one is a clean clone while the other is meant to re-use an existing ns-3 Git repository. Clone your forked repository on your machine

Git is a distributed versioning system. This means that nobody will touch your personal repository, until you do something. Please note that every gitlab user has, at least, two repositories: the first is represented by the repository hosted on gitlab servers, which will be called in the following origin. Then, you have your clone on your machine. This means that you could have many clones, on different machines, which points to origin.

To clone the newly created fork to your system, go to the homepage of your fork (that should be in the form https://gitlab.com/your-user-name/ns-3-dev) and click the Clone button. Then, go to your computer’s terminal, and issue the command (please refer to https://docs.gitlab.com/ee/gitlab-basics/command-line-commands.html#clone-your-project for more documentation):

$ git clone https://gitlab.com/your-user-name/ns-3-dev
$ cd ns-3-dev

In this example we used the HTTPS address because in some place the git + ssh address is blocked by firewalls. If you are not under this constraint, it is recommended to use the git + ssh address to avoid the username/password typing at each request. Naming conventions

Git is able to fetch and push changes to several repositories, each of them is called remote. With time, you probably will have many remotes, each one with many branches. To avoid confusion, it is recommended to give meaningful names to the remotes. Following the Git terminology, we will use origin to indicate the ns-3-dev repository in your personal namespace (your forked version, server-side) and upstream to indicate the ns-3-dev repository in the nsnam namespace, server-side.

4.1.3. Add the official ns-3 repository as remote upstream

You could have already used Git in the past, and therefore already having a ns-3 Git repository somewhere. Or, instead, you could have it cloned for the first time in the step above. In both cases, when you fork/clone a repository, your history is no more bound to the repository itself. At this point, it is your duty to sync your fork with the original repository. The first remote repository we have encountered is origin; we must add the official ns-3 repo as another remote repository:

$ git remote add upstream https://gitlab.com/nsnam/ns-3-dev

With the command above, we added a remote repository, named upstream, which links to the official ns-3 repo. To show your remote repositories:

$ git remote show

To see what origin is linking to:

$ git remote show origin

Many options are available; please refer to the Git manual for more.

4.1.4. Add your forked repository as remote

If you were a user of the old github mirror, you probably have an existing Git repository installed somewhere. In your case, it is not necessary to clone your fork and to port all your work in the new directory; you can add the fork as new remote:

$ git remote rename origin old-origin
$ git remote add origin https://gitlab.com/your-user-name/ns-3-dev

After these two commands, you will have a remote, named origin, that points to your forked repository on gitlab.

4.1.5. Keep in sync your repository with latest ns-3-dev updates

We assume, from now to the end of this document, that you will not make commits on top of the master branch. It should be kept clean from any personal modifications: all the works must be done in branches. Therefore, to move the current HEAD of the master branch to the latest commit in ns-3-dev, you should do:

$ git checkout master
$ git fetch upstream
$ git pull upstream master

If you tried a pull which resulted in a conflict and you would like to start over, you can recover with Git reset (but this never happens if you do not commit over master).

4.1.6. Start a new branch to do some work

Look at the available branches:

$ git branch -a

you should see something like:

* master

The branch master is your local master branch; remotes/origin/master point at the master branch on your repository located in the Gitlab server, while remotes/nsnam/master points to the official master branch.

Before entering in details on how to create a new branch, we have to explain why it is recommended to do it. First of all, if you put all your work in a separate branch, you can easily see the diff between ns-3 mainline and your feature branch (with git diff master). Also, you can integrate more easily the upstream advancements in your work, and when you wish, you can create a conflict-free merge request, that will ease the maintainer’s job in reviewing your work.

To create a new branch, starting from master, the command is:

$ git checkout master
$ git checkout -b [name_of_your_new_branch]

To switch between branches, remove the -b option. You should now see:

$ git branch -a
 * master

4.1.7. Edit and commit the modifications

After you edit some file, you should commit the difference. As a policy, Git users love small and incremental patches. So, commit early, and commit often: you could rewrite your history later.

Suppose we edited src/internet/model/tcp-socket-base.cc. With Git status, we can see the repository status:

$ git status
   On branch tcp-next
   Your branch is up-to-date with 'mirror/tcp-next'.
   Changes not staged for commit:
     modified:   src/internet/model/tcp-socket-base.cc

and we can see the edits with git diff:

$ git diff

nat@miyamoto ~/Work/ns-3-dev-git (tcp-next)$ git diff
diff --git i/src/internet/model/tcp-socket-base.cc w/src/internet/model/tcp-socket-base.cc
index 1bf0f69..e2298b0 100644
--- i/src/internet/model/tcp-socket-base.cc
+++ w/src/internet/model/tcp-socket-base.cc
@@ -1439,6 +1439,10 @@ TcpSocketBase::ReceivedAck (Ptr<Packet> packet, const TcpHeader& tcpHeader)
       // There is a DupAck

+      // I'm introducing a subtle bug!
+      m_tcb->m_cWnd = m_tcb->m_ssThresh;
       if (m_tcb->m_congState == TcpSocketState::CA_OPEN)
           // From Open we go Disorder

To create a commit, select the file you want to add to the commit with git add:

$ git add src/internet/model/tcp-socket-base.cc

and then commit the result:

$ git commit -m "My new TCP broken"

Of course, it would be better to have some rules for the commit message: they will be reported in the next subsection. Commit message guidelines

The commit title should not go over the 80 char limit. It should be prefixed by the name of the module you are working on, and if it fixes a bug, it should reference it in the commit title. For instance, a good commit title would be:

tcp: My new TCP broken

Another example is:

tcp: (fixes #2322) Corrected the uint32_t wraparound during recovery

In the body message, try to explain what the problem was, and how you resolved that. If it is a new feature, try to describe it at a very high level, and highlight any modifications that changed the behaviour or the interface towards the users or other modules. Commit log

You can see the history of the commits with git log. To show a particular commit, copy the sha-id and use git show <sha-id>. The ID is unique, so it can be referenced in emails or in issues. The next step is useful if you plan to contribute back your changes, but also to keep your feature branch updated with the latest changes from ns-3-dev.

4.1.8. Rebase your branch on top of master

Meanwhile you were busy with your branch, the upstream master could have changed. To rebase your work with the now new master, first of all sync your master branch (pulling the upstream/master branch into your local master branch) as explained before; then

$ git checkout [name_of_your_new_branch]
$ git rebase master

The last command will rewind your work, update the HEAD of your branch to the actual master, and then re-apply all your work. If some of your work conflicts with the actual master, you will be asked to fix these conflicts if automatic merge fails.

4.1.9. Pushing your changes to origin

After you have done some work on a branch, if you would like to share it with others, there is nothing better than pushing your work to your origin repository, on Gitlab servers.

$ git checkout [name_of_your_new_branch]
$ git push origin [name_of_your_new_branch]

The git push command can be used every time you need to push something from your computer to a remote repository, except when you propose changes to the main ns-3-dev repository: your changes must pass a review stage.

Please note that for older Git version, the push command looks like:

$ git push -u origin [name_of_your_new_branch]

4.1.10. Submit work for review

After you push your branch to origin, you can follow the instructions here https://docs.gitlab.com/ee/user/project/merge_requests/creating_merge_requests.html to create a merge request.

It is strongly suggested to rebase your branch on top of upstream/master (or master, if you kept it synced) before submitting your work. This helps reviewing the code changes proposed in the branch. merge it without conflicts, and it increase the speed of the GitLab CI. GitLab CI (Continuous Integration)

GitLab provides a CI (Continuous Integration) feature. Shortly put, after every push the code is built and tests are run in one of the GitLab servers.

Merge requests are expected to pass the CI, as is to not generate errors or warnings during compilation, to have all the tests passing, and to not generate warnings on the documentation. Hence, the CI is very important for the workflow. However, sometimes running the Ci is superfluous, for example:

  • You are in the middle of some work (and perhaps you know that there are errors),

  • Your changes are not tested by the CI (e.g., changes to the AUTHORS),

  • Etc.

In these cases it is useful to skip the CI to save time, CI runners quota, and energy. This is possible by using the -o ci.skip option:

$ git push -o ci.skip GitLab CI optimization

The GitLab Ci jobs are optimized to take advantage of caches (this is done automatically).

In order to take full advantage of the caches, it is suggested to rebase your branches on top of upstream/master (or your own ‘master’ branch if you keep it synced with the latest commits from upstream/master).

4.1.11. Porting patches from mercurial repositories to Git

Placeholder section; please improve it.

4.2. Working with Git as a maintainer

As a maintainer, you are a person who has write access to the main nsnam repository. You could push your own work (without passing from code review) or push someone else’s work. Let’s investigate the two cases.

4.2.1. Pushing your own work

Since you have been added to the Developer list on Gitlab (if not, please open an issue) you can use the git + ssh address when adding nsnam as remote. Once you have done that, you can do your modifications to a local branch, then update the master to point to the latest changes of the nsnam repo, and then:

$ git checkout master
$ git pull upstream master
$ git merge [your_branch_name]
$ git push upstream master

Please note that if you want to keep track of your branch, you can use as command git merge --no-ff [your_branch_name]. It is always recommended to rebase your branch before merging, to have a clean history. That is not a requirement, though: Git perfectly handles a master with parallel merged branches.

4.2.2. Review and merge someone else’s work

Gitlab.com has a plenty of documentation on how to handle merge requests. Please take a look here: https://docs.gitlab.com/ee/user/project/merge_requests/creating_merge_requests.html.

If you are committing a patch from someone else, and it is not coming through a Merge Request process, you can use the –author=’’ argument to ‘git commit’ to assign authorship to another email address (such as we have done in the past with the Mercurial -u option).

4.2.3. Making a release

As stated above, the project has adopted a workflow to aim for a mostly linear history on a single master branch. Releases are branches from this master branch but the branches themselves are not long-lived; the release branches are merged back to master in a special way. However, the release branches can be checked out by using the Git tag facility; a named release such as ‘ns-3.30’ can be checked out on a branch by specifying the release name ‘ns-3.30’ (or ‘ns-3.30.1’ etc.).

A compact way to represent a Git history is the following command:

$ git log --graph --decorate --oneline --all

At the point just before the ns-3.34 release, the log looked like this:

* 9df8ef4 (HEAD -> master) doc: Update ns-3 version in tutorial examples
* 9319cdd (origin/master, origin/HEAD) Update CHANGES.html and RELEASE_NOTES
* 8da68b5 wifi: Fix typo in channel access manager test

We want the release to create a small branch that is merged (in a special way) back to the mainline, yielding something like this:

* 4b27025 (master) Update release files to start next release
*   fd075f6 Merge ns-3.34-release branch
| * 3fab3cf (HEAD, tag: ns-3.34) Update availability in RELEASE_NOTES
| * c50aaf7 Update VERSION and documentation tags for ns-3.34 release
* 9df8ef4 doc: Update ns-3 version in tutorial examples
* 9319cdd (origin/master, origin/HEAD) Update CHANGES.html and RELEASE_NOTES

The first commit on the release branch changes the ‘3-dev’ string in VERSION and the various documentation conf.py files to ‘3.34’. The second commit on the release branch updates RELEASE_NOTES to state the URL of the release.

Starting with commit 9df8ef4, the following steps were taken to create the ns-3.34 release. First, this commit hash ‘9df8ef4’ will be used later in the merge process.

First, create a new release branch locally:

$ git checkout -b 'ns-3.34-release'
Switched to a new branch 'ns-3.34-release'

We change the VERSION field from ‘3-dev’ to ‘3.34’:

$ sed -i 's/3-dev/3.34/g' VERSION

We next change the file conf.py in the contributing, installation, tutorial, manual, and models directories to change the strings ‘ns-3-dev’ to ns-3.34.

When you are done, the ‘git diff –stat’ command should show:

VERSION                         | 2 +-
doc/contributing/source/conf.py | 4 ++--
doc/installation/source/conf.py | 4 ++--
doc/manual/source/conf.py       | 4 ++--
doc/models/source/conf.py       | 4 ++--
doc/tutorial/source/conf.py     | 4 ++--
6 files changed, 11 insertions(+), 11 deletions(-)

Make a commit of these files:

$ git commit -a -m"Update VERSION and documentation tags for ns-3.34 release"

Next, make the following change to RELEASE_NOTES.md and commit it:

-Release 3-dev
+Release 3.34
+### Availability
+This release is available from:

Commit this change:

$ git commit -m"Update availability in RELEASE_NOTES.md" RELEASE_NOTES.md

Finally, add a Git annotated tag:

$ git tag -a 'ns-3.34' -m"ns-3.34 release"

Now, let’s merge back to master. However, we want to avoid touching the VERSION and conf.py files on master; we want the RELEASE_NOTES change and new tag. We can accomplish this with a special merge as follows.

$ git checkout master
$ git merge --no-commit --no-ff ns-3.34-release
Automatic merge went well; stopped before committing as requested

Now, we want to reset VERSION to the previous string, which existed before we branched. We can use git reset on this file and then finish the merge. Recall its commit hash of 9df8ef4 from above.

$ git reset 9df8ef4 VERSION
Unstaged changes after reset:
$ sed -i 's/3.34/3-dev/g' VERSION

Repeat the above resets and change back to 3-dev for each conf.py file.

Finally, commit the branch and delete our local release branch.

$ git commit -m"Merge ns-3.34-release branch"
$ git branch -d ns-3.34-release

The Git history now looks like this:

$ git log --graph --decorate --oneline --all
*   fd075f6 (HEAD -> master) Merge ns-3.34-release branch
| * 3fab3cf (HEAD, tag: ns-3.34) Update availability in RELEASE_NOTES
| * c50aaf7 Update VERSION and documentation tags for ns-3.34 release
* 9df8ef4 doc: Update ns-3 version in tutorial examples
* 9319cdd (origin/master, origin/HEAD) Update CHANGES.html and RELEASE_NOTES

This may now be pushed to nsnam/ns-3-dev.git and development can continue.

Important: When pushing to the remote, don’t forget to push the tags:

$ git push --follow-tags

Future users who want to check out the ns-3.34 release will do something like:

$ git checkout -b my-local-ns-3.34 ns-3.34
Switched to a new branch 'my-local-ns-3.34'

Note: It is a good idea to avoid naming the new branch the same as the tag name; in this case, ‘ns-3.34’.

Let’s assume now that master evolves with new features and bugfixes. They are committed to master on nsnam/ns-3-dev.git as usual:

$ git checkout master
... (some changes)
$ git commit -m"make some changes" -a
$ echo 'd' >> d
$ git add d
$ git commit -m"Add new feature" d
... (some more changes)
$ git commit -m"some more changes" -a
... (now fix a really important bug)
$ echo 'abc' >> a
$ git commit -m"Fix missing abc bug on file a" a

Now the tree looks like this:

$ git log --graph --decorate --oneline --all
* ee37d41 (HEAD -> master) Fix missing abc bug on file a
* 9a3432a some more changes
* ba28d6d Add new feature
* e50015a make some changes
*   fd075f6 Merge ns-3.34-release branch
| * 3fab3cf (tag: ns-3.34) Update availability in RELEASE_NOTES
| * c50aaf7 Update VERSION and documentation tags for ns-3.34 release
* 9df8ef4 doc: Update ns-3 version in tutorial examples
* 9319cdd Update CHANGES.html and RELEASE_NOTES

Let’s assume that the changeset ee37d41 is considered important to fix in the ns-3.34 release, but we don’t want the other changes introduced since then. The solution will be to create a new branch for a hotfix release, and follow similar steps. The branch for the hotfix should come from commit 3fab3cf, and should cherry-pick commit ee37d41 (which may require merge if it doesn’t apply cleanly), and then the hotfix branch can be tagged and merged as was done before.

$ git checkout -b ns-3.34.1-release ns-3.34
$ git cherry-pick ee37d41
... (resolve any conflicts)
$ git add a
$ git commit
$ sed -i 's/3.34/3.34.1/g' VERSION
$ git commit -m"Update VERSION to 3.34.1" VERSION
$ git tag -a 'ns-3.34.1' -m"ns-3.34.1 release"

Now the merge:

$ git checkout master
$ git merge --no-commit --no-ff ns-3.34.1-release

This time we may see something like:

Auto-merging a
CONFLICT (content): Merge conflict in a
Auto-merging VERSION
CONFLICT (content): Merge conflict in VERSION
Automatic merge failed; fix conflicts and then commit the result.

And we can then do:

$ git reset ee37d41 a
$ git reset ee37d41 VERSION

Which leaves us with:

Unstaged changes after reset:
M a

We can next hand-edit these files to restore them to original state, so that:

$ git status
On branch master
Your branch is ahead of 'origin/master' by 8 commits.
  (use "git push" to publish your local commits)

All conflicts fixed but you are still merging.
  (use "git commit" to conclude merge)

$ git commit
$ git branch -d ns-3.34.1-release

The new log should show something like the below, with parallel Git history paths until the merge back again:

$ git log --graph --decorate --oneline --all
*   815ce6e (HEAD -> master) Merge branch 'ns-3.34.1-release'
| * 12a29ca (tag: ns-3.34.1) Update VERSION to 3.34.1
| * 21ebdbf Fix missing abc bug on file a
* | ee37d41 Fix missing abc bug on file a
* | 9a3432a some more changes
* | ba28d6d Add new feature
* | e50015a make some changes
* |   fd075f6 Merge ns-3.34-release branch
|\ \
| |/
| * 3fab3cf (tag: ns-3.34) Update availability in RELEASE_NOTES
| * c50aaf7 Update VERSION and documentation tags for ns-3.34 release
* 9df8ef4 doc: Update ns-3 version in tutorial examples
* 9319cdd Update CHANGES.html and RELEASE_NOTES

$ git push origin master:master --follow-tags

And we can continue to commit on top of master going forward. The two tags should be found in the git tag output (among other tags):

$ git tag